Reading Fluency

Reading Fluency Drills and Accuracy

Struggling Readers read less than ten
pages per day that's about 2,000-4,000
words per day, or 400,000 words for
the whole year!

Reading Boot Camp students read
27,000 to 40,000 words per day for 20
days. A half million words read in 20
days! That’s 180 to 240 minutes of ontask
decoding daily.

Fluency is the foundation of reading comprehension. Students that read slowly have little to no recall. The five domains of reading are all important yet fluency is often a after thought. Focusing on fluency will directly impact on comprehension and recall.
1. Vocabulary: 

The four types of vocabulary. 

2. Phonemic Awareness:  is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness.

3. Phonics : refers to a method for teaching speakers of English to read and write that language. Phonics involves teaching how to connect the sounds of spoken English with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, ck, ch, or q spellings) and teaching them to blend the sounds of letters together to produce approximate pronunciations of unknown words.

4. Fluency: is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Fluency bridges word decoding and comprehension. Comprehension is understanding what has been read. Fluency is a set of skills that allows readers to rapidly decode text while maintaining a high level of comprehension (National Reading Panel, 2001).

5. Reading Comprehension: is defined as the level of understanding of a writing

Students learn to read about 300-1000 words per year!

Please Email me for free fluency drills.

Repeated reading and rereading of vocabulary controlled materials

Student reads the same material a number of times per day
One minute drills range from a Lexile of 500 to 1100 for
intermediate students, and 150 to 450 for primary students.

General procedure
• Raw-timing (one, five, ten minutes) New Passages
• Practice rereading of controlled material to increase fluency
• Hot-timing (one, five, ten, twenty, up to sixty minute timing for endurance)

Coupled with the following immediate interventions
Modeling done by teacher, and peers

Peers Administers Fluency Charts to Speed Evaluation

Students self-monitoring of progress through graphing wpm rate

Sample Fluency Drill

One Minute Timed Fluency Test 4th grade   
3.9 RL Lexile  675
Snow-white and Rose-red

1. There was once a poor widow who lived in a lonely cottage. In front of
the cottage was a garden wherein stood two rose-trees, one of which
bore white and the other red roses. She had two children who were like
the two rose-trees, and one was called Snow-white, and the other Rose-red.
They were as good and happy, as busy and cheerful as ever two
children in the world were, only Snow-white was more quiet and gentle
than Rose-red. Rose-red liked better to run about in the meadows and
fields seeking flowers and catching butterflies; but Snow-white sat at
home with her mother, and helped her with her housework, or read to
her when there was nothing to do. 124 WPM

2. The two children were so fond of one another that they always held
each other by the hand when they went out together, and when Snow-white
said: 'We will not leave each other,' Rose-red answered: 'Never so
long as we live,' and their mother would add: 'What one has she must
share with the other.' 182 WPM

Sample Fluency Drill

One Minute Timed Fluency Test 4th grade 
Reading Level  9.8

1. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and
of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister
was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, “and what is the use
of a book,” thought Alice, “without pictures or conversation?” 57 WPM

2. So she was considering, in her own mind (as well as she could, for the hot
day made her feel very sleepy and stupid), whether the pleasure of making a
daisy-chain would be worth the trouble of getting up and picking the daisies,
when suddenly a White Rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her. 114 WPM

3. There was nothing so very remarkable in that; nor did Alice think it so very
much out of the way to hear the Rabbit say to itself “Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall
be too late!” (when she thought it over afterwards, it occurred to her that she
ought to have wondered at this, but at the time it all seemed quite natural); but
when the Rabbit actually took a watch out of its waistcoat-pocket, and looked
at it, and then hurried on, Alice started to her feet, for it flashed across her mind
that she had never before seen a rabbit with either a waistcoat-pocket, or a
watch to take out of it, and, burning with curiosity, she ran across the field
after it, and was just in time to see it pop down a large rabbit-hole under the
hedge. In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering
how in the world she was to get out again. 278 WPM

Grade Level Fluency Goals

1st Grade 80 Words Correct Per Minute
2nd           140 WCPM
3rd           160 
4th           180 
5th           195 
6th           205 
7th           210 
8th           215 

Fluency Drills 1st Grade

Ned has fed the hen.
She is a black hen.
She has left the nest.
See the eggs in the nest! 21

Will the hen let Ned get them?
Let me get the black hen. 35

Now Ned has it in his hand,
and he is a big man.
Nat, see the big man
with his black hat. 58

Ned is on the box.
He has a pen in his hand.
A big fat rat is in the box.
Can the dog catch the fat rat?86

Come with me, Ann,
and see the man with
a black hat on his head.101

The fat hen has left the nest.
Run, Nat, and get the eggs. 114


head he Nat come with and on

pat catch has left hat can

black eggs Rab Ann fed get

Fluency Drill 1st Grade

Do you see Nell?

Yes; she has a pan with some eggs in it.
Let me have the pan and the eggs, will you, Nell?
Has the black hen left the nest?
I will now run to catch Rob. Will you run, too? 43

Oh Ben! let me get in, will you?
Yes, if you will sit still.
Stand still, Jill, and let Ann get in.
Now, Ben, hand me the whip.
Get up, Jill!75

Kitty has a nice pet. It can sing a sweet song.
She has just fed it.
She will now put it in the cage,
and hang the cage up. Then the cat can
not catch it. 111

Look at Tom and his dog.
The dog has a black spot on his back.
Do you think he is a good dog?
Tom has a big top, too. It is on the box with Kitty's doll. 149

Fluency Drill 1st Grade

The sun is up.

The man has fed the black hen and the fat duck.
Now the duck will swim in the pond. The hen has run to her nest.
Let us not stop at the pond now, for it is hot.
See how still it is! We will go to see Tom and his top. 52

O John! the sun has just set. It is not hot, now.
Let us run and jump. I think it is fun to run, and skip, and jump.
See the duck on the pond! Her nest is up on the bank, under the rock.
We must not touch the nest, but we may look at it. 109

The sun has set, and the pond is still.
John, Ned, Ben, Tom, and Nell stand on the bank, and look at the duck.
The dog with a black spot on his back, is with Tom. See! Tom has his hat
in his hand. He has left his big top on the box.
Kitty's doll is on the rock. Nell has put her pet in the cage. It will
sing a sweet song. The duck has her nest under the rock. 191

It is not hot now. Let us run, and skip, and jump on the bank. Do you not
think it is fun? 214

Fluency Drill 1st Grade

Oh Kate! 
The old cow is in the pond: see her drink!
Will she not come out to get some grass?
No, Tom, she likes to be in the pond. See how still she stands!
The dear old cow gives us sweet milk to drink. 43

Papa, will you let me ride with you on Prince? I will sit still in your arms.
See, mamma! We are both on Prince. How large he is!
Get up, Prince! You are not too fat to trot as far as the barn.
Did you call us, mamma? 92

I went with Tom to the pond. I had my doll, and Tom had his flag.
The fat duck swam to the bank, and we fed her.
Did you think we might fall into the pond?
We did not go too near, did we, Tom?
May we go to the swing, now, mamma? 148

Kate has gone to play with Mary and James. 
They are all in the shade, now, by the brook. 
James digs in the soft sand with his spade, and Mary picks up little 
stones and puts them in her lap. James and Mary are glad to see Kate.
She will help them pick up stones and dig, by the little brook. 52

"What shall we do?" said Mary to James. "I do not like to sit still. Shall
we hunt for eggs in the barn?" "No" said James; "I like to play on the grass. 
Will not papa let us catch Prince, and go to the big woods?"
"We can put the tent in the cart, and go to some nice spot where the grass
is soft and sweet." "That will be fine," said Kate. "I will get my doll, 
and give her a ride with us." 138 

"Yes," said James, "and we will get mamma to go, too. She will hang up a
swing for us in the shade." "I will get my kite, and see it fly.
This is a fine day. The sun shines bright. There is a good wind, 
and my kite flies high. I can just see it. The sun shines in my eyes; 
I will stand in the shade of this high fence. 

Why, here comes my dog! He was under the cart. Did you see him there?
What a good time we have had! Are you not glad that we did not go to the woods with James? 246

The Fluency Drill Contained Next Are Made From The 
English-Language Arts
Grade 2 English-language arts (PDF; 819KB; 46pp.)
Grade 3 English-language arts (PDF; 877KB; 45pp.)
Grade 4 English-language arts (PDF; 1.9MB; 73pp.)
Grade 5 English-language arts (PDF; 883KB; 66pp.)
Grade 6 English-language arts (PDF; 991KB; 61pp.)
Grade 7 English-language arts (PDF; 848KB; 69pp.)
Grade 8 English-language arts (PDF; 933KB; 67pp.)
Grade 9 English-language arts (PDF; 1.5MB; 71pp.)
Grade 10 English-language arts (PDF; 2.7MB; 76pp.)
Grade 11 English-language arts (PDF; 809KB; 70pp.)

SECOND GRADE FLUENCY DRILLS Sample made from released State Standardized Test

Samples are for educational purpose only, full released test can be found at the California Department of Education website. 

Fall Flowers
As summer ends and fall begins, you can still enjoy spring flowers—inside! It’s an easy way to make your home look pretty. 22 WCPM

Some flowers grow from seeds. Other flowers, such as tulips, grow from bulbs. A flower bulb looks like an onion. Some bulbs are as big as eggs. Flowers grown from bulbs come in many different colors. 58 WCPM

Some bulb flowers are easier than others to grow inside. A good one to try first is called a paperwhite. As many as twelve sweet-smelling flowers can grow from one paperwhite bulb. WCPM 90

The Drum — A Tale from India
1 Long ago in India, a boy named Sonu and his mother were walking home from the market. Along the way, Mother stopped and picked up a stick. “Here is a fine stick, Sonu,” she said. “I’m
sorry it is not a drum. I know that you have been wishing for one.” WCPM 53
2 “Thank you, Mother,” said Sonu, taking the long piece of wood. He knew that she would buy him a drum if she had the money. WCPM 81
3 Soon they met a woman who was trying to start a fire. Her fire would not light. “Here,” said Sonu, handing her his stick. The woman used the stick to start the fire. Then she gave Sonu a chapati, a round, flat bread. WCPM 129
4 Next Sonu and his mother met a man and a little girl. The girl was hungry, so Sonu gave her
his bread. “Here, take this drum,” said the man. “Someone gave it to my daughter, but she
doesn’t need it.” WCPM 171
The Blue Feather — A Tale from Brazil
1 Mia lived by the great Amazon River. One day her mother gave her a pretty blue feather. WCPM 17
2 Mia wanted to show the feather to her friend Nali. She put the feather in her basket and told her mother where she was going. Nali lived nearby in a hut by the river. WCPM 53
3 Walking on the path along the river, Mia saw a red flower. As she bent to pick up the flower, the wind blew the blue feather up into the air! Mia could not catch the feather. She sighed and put the red flower in her basket. WCPM 100
4 Then a yellow butterfly flew in front of Mia. Running to catch the butterfly, Mia dropped her basket. The red flower fell out, and the wind carried it out onto the river. WCPM 135
5 Mia sighed and picked up her basket. Looking up, Mia saw the yellow butterfly land on a branch where there was a bluebird. The bluebird flew away, dropping one of its beautiful blue feathers near Mia’s feet! WCPM 176
6 Happily, Mia picked up the feather and hurried to her friend’s house. WCPM 190

Dolores Huerta
1 Dolores Huerta has worked hard most of her life to help other people. She has helped change things so that farm workers can have a better life. WCPM 27
2 Dolores grew up in California. She was a good student and liked school. After she finished high school, she went to college and studied to be a teacher. After she became a teacher, Dolores noticed that many of her students were not getting enough food to eat. Some of them wore very old clothes. Dolores wondered how she could help them. WCPM 92
3 Dolores decided to stop teaching so that she could spend more time helping the farm workers and their families. Dolores did not want to quit her job. She liked teaching, but she thought she could help the children more by helping their families. One thing she wanted to do was to get more pay for farm workers so they could buy their children the things they needed. WCPM 162
4 Dolores knew that many farm workers move often from one place to another to help pick different kinds of fruits and vegetables, like lettuce and grapes. She began talking and writing about these workers. Even people who lived far from California read what Dolores wrote. WCPM 210
5 Getting higher pay for the farm workers was not easy. Dolores worked hard to make sure that farm workers got fair pay for their work. She knew that nothing would change unless people made new laws to help the workers. Through all her hard work, new laws were made that gave farm workers fair pay. WCPM 268
6 Dolores Huerta has worked for more than 30 years in many different ways to make life better for working people. She has shown how much one person can change things. WCPM300

Sugar Comes Home
1 Sugar the cat belonged to Mr. and Mrs. Woods. Her fur was white like sugar. That is how she got her name. The cat was sweet like sugar too. She was a pleasant pet. She did have a bump on one leg, but Mr. and Mrs. Woods thought that Sugar was just right. WCPM 54
2 The Woods family lived in California. They had lived there for a long time. One day they had to move to another state. It would be a long drive to their new home. Sugar did not like to ride in a car. The family did not know what to do. WCPM 105
3 The neighbors who lived next door wanted a cat and said they would keep Sugar. Sugar would not have to move or ride in a car. Everyone thought that would please her. WCPM 139
4 The Woods family packed the car. They said goodbye to Sugar. They would miss their cat, but Sugar would have a comfortable home. WCPM 164
5 The Woods family moved to Oklahoma, which was far from California. They started a new life and were cozy, but they often thought of their cat. One day Mrs. Woods was in the barn. A cat came in the open door. The cat was wet and dirty, but, under the dirt, its fur was white. It was white like sugar. WCPM 227
6 The cat purred softly and jumped into Mrs. Woods’ arms. Mrs. Woods felt she knew the cat, but her cat lived far away. Then she saw something. There was a bump on its leg! The cat was Sugar! WCPM 265
7 Mr. and Mrs. Woods learned that Sugar had run away from home. Somehow the cat had walked more than 1,000 miles. The trip had taken the cat more than one year. They did not understand how Sugar had found them, but they were delighted that she did! WCPM 318

Teacher-Made Fluency Drills

Fluency drills can be one to five minutes long, depending on the lesson
and the literature. I prefer to make my own fluency drills from The 
Andrew Lang Fairy Books or other public domain materials. I select
great classic fairy tales or prose from the classics and I also use 
chapter books like Harry Potter. Using chapter books is for
impromptu, quick assessments because it’s not conducive for
marking a running record. The teacher--made fluency drills are 
analyzed for vocabulary, content, Lexile, readability, and 

The The Diary of a Reading Teacher “Reading Boot Camp”
Free Fluency Drills at

The student is given the reasons and the procedures for doing the
fluency drill and asked to do their best reading. We read from a 
selection and do a word count and miscue analysis focusing mainly
on fluency and accuracy. The student and the teacher sit with the 
same text and set the clock for one to five minutes and the student 
starts reading. The student reads as many words as possible in
the allotted time, skipping words that are unknown or not decodable. 
I mark the text for miscues and substitutions, an informal running 
record of basic miscues, looking more for raw words per minute
rate. We discuss the data and set goals for accuracy and fluency. 
Students always receive a quick pep talk on the importance of 
speed and accuracy. I read the text at what would be considered 
half normal reading speed to show how hard it is to listen and pay 
attention. I read it again with great oration (a formal public speech)
to demonstrate that we need more stimulating reading to help our 
brains enjoy the reading. I choral read the selection with the student,
stopping to go over words that the student is still missing and helping
with articulation. Students learn the test-taking and proctoring skills
to work with their peers. I use fluency drills to build automaticity, 
word attack, comprehension, inflection, articulation, voice, and
power. Repeated readings of poems and stories expose students to
the key vocabulary that insures fast acquisition of the challenging 
vocabulary. Rereading of poetry and short verse makes each read 
through faster, more accurate, and easier. Students feel empowered
after just a few times reading because they see instant results.
Developing Accuracy and Endurance

Kung Fu means hard work over time to build great skill or great 
achievement. Accuracy takes three disciplines that relate to all 
learned tasks: frequency, precision, and power. Students read 
the same poems, folktales, fables, and short stories a number 
of times per

Sean Taylor M. Ed.